The European Commission’s Scientific Advice Mechanism has published an opinion on the potential of CCUS and the best way to implement it. Can “carbon capture and utilisation” technologies contribute to mitigating climate change? And if so, how should we choose in which of these various technologies to invest? These are some of the issues explored in the fourth scientific opinion of the European Commission’s Group of Chief Scientific Advisors. Carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) technologies remove CO2 from the atmosphere and use energy to convert it into various useful products such as fuel, building materials or plastics. But at present, there are no accurate methods to determine the climate mitigation potential of these technologies. This has hindered investment and thus their deployment. The opinion draws on the best available scientific and technical evidence from across Europe. The advisors observe that for CCU technologies to contribute to climate change mitigation, the energy used in CO2 conversion must be of low carbon origin. In addition, and because the converted carbon may be held in the product for a variable amount of time and not always permanently, the assessment of the climate mitigation potential of the technologies also depends on a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach that takes into account the fate of carbon once released from the product. The opinion was drafted at the request of Miguel Arias Can~ete, Commissioner for Climate Action and Energy. He said, "We are determined to meet our commitments to curb climate change, and for that we have to explore every possible avenue. This scientific opinion provides a roadmap for specifying how carbon capture and utilisation can be part of this effort." The opinion concludes that:
• CCU may play a role to de-fossilise the economy and help reaching climate change mitigation targets;
•It can contribute to leaving fossil carbon in the ground, and closing the carbon loop above the ground;
•CCU can also accomplish a number of other services to society with a more efficient use of energy;
• The uptake of CCU will depend on the availability of abundant lowcarbon energy and a favourable legislative and investment environment;
•The introduction of CCU could start with high-density CO2 streams from industrial processes and progressively move towards capturing CO2 from less dense sources.
The opinion draws upon a comprehensive review of scientific literature, including the Scientific Advice to Policy by European Academies (SAPEA) Evidence Review Report, a wide-ranging consultation with the most relevant scientific experts and policy, industry and civil society stakeholders. It is published at the time of the 3rd ministerial meeting of Mission Innovation in Malmö, Sweden. Countries and organisations participating in Mission Innovation, including the European Commission on behalf of the EU, have joined forces to accelerate the clean energy revolution.More information ec.europa.eu/research/sam